Assessment of Dietary Vitamin D Intake and Compliance With Recommended Vitamin D Supplementation in Division I Collegiate AthletesThe primary aim of this study was to assess dietary vitamin D intake and compliance with a recommended vitamin D supplementation program in a collegiate athlete population. Subsequently, associations between dietary intake, compliance with supplementation, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were investigated. This study retrospectively reviewed vitamin D data for 256 athletes across 13 sports at one NCAA Division I University. Independent variables were gender, skin tone, sport, season of year, dietary intake of vitamin D, and supplementation compliance. The main outcome measure was serum 25(OH)D. Low vitamin D status was defined as 25(OH)D level less than 30 ng/mL. Supplementation was recommended for athletes with low status. In fall, 35.5% of athletes had levels less than 30 ng/mL. Mean 25(OH)D level declined (P < .001) between fall (40.7 ± 7.5 ng/mL) and winter (32.5 ± 7.3 ng/mL) in non-supplemented athletes. Supplementation increased 25(OH)D levels by 8.5 ± 9.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval: 6.6 to 10.4) in 12 weeks. On average athletes reported moderate compliance, taking approximately half of their prescribed supplements. There was a weak correlation between percent supplement compliance and 25(OH) D levels (r = 0.257, P = .011). Athletes with better vitamin D status had higher intake of milk (among freshmen only, P = .042) and yogurt (among all athletes, P = .025). Increasing dietary intake of vitamin D-rich foods and moderate to good compliance with recommended supplementation may help collegiate athletes improve or maximize their vitamin D status. [Athletic Training & Sports Health Care. 2015;7(5):204–213.]
From the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.
The authors have no financial or proprietary interest in the materials presented herein.
The authors thank the Sports Medicine staff at the University of Wisconsin–Madison Department of Intercollegiate Athletics for their commitment to the welfare of the student-athletes and contributions to the Badger Athletic Performance program.
Correspondence: M. Alison Brooks, MD, MPH, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 621 Science Drive, Room Box, Madison, WI 53705. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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