Swimming and peak bone mineral density: A systematic review and meta-analysis
This meta-analysis aims to determine the effects of regular swimming on bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults (18–30 years). A systematic search was performed in Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and the Cochrane Library from the earliest possible year to March 2016. Swimmers were compared to non-athletic controls (CG) and to high-impact athletes (HIGH). Effect sizes with the Hedges g in random effects models were developed. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analyses. Swimmers presented similar BMD values to CG in whole-body (g = −0.20; P = 0.251), femoral neck (g = −0.05; P = 0.818) and lumbar spine (g = 0.18; P = 0.492); and lower BMD in the whole-body (g = −1.21; P < 0.001), femoral neck (g = −1.51; P < 0.001) and lumbar spine (g = −0.84; P = 0.017) than the HIGH. For the whole-body differences, the higher the latitude the smaller the differences between swimmers and HIGH (B = 0.10; P = 0.001). For the femoral neck differences, age also seemed to reduce the differences between groups (B = 0.19; P = 0.020). Young adult swimmers present similar BMD values than CG and lower values than HIGH.
Autor / Fonte:Alejandro Gomez-Bruton, Jesús Montero-Marín, Alejandro González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, Javier García-Campayo, Luis A Moreno, Jose A Casajús, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez Journal of Sports Sciences 2017 April 10, : 1-13