Physiological Changes Following Competition in Male and Female Physique Athletes: A Pilot Study
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in body composition, metabolic rate, and hormones during post-competition recovery. Data were collected from natural physique athletes (7 male/8 female) within one week before (T1) competition, within one week after (T2), and 4-6 weeks after (T3) competition. Measures included body composition (fat mass [FM] and lean mass [LM] from ultrasongraphy), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), and salivary leptin, testosterone, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin. Total body water (TBW; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) was measured at T1 and T2 in a sub-sample (n=8) of athletes. Significant (p<0.05) changes were observed for weight (T1=65.4±12.2 kg, T2=67.4±12.6, T3=69.3±13.4; T3>T2>T1), LM (T1=57.6±13.9 kg, T2=59.4±14.2, T3=59.3±14.2; T2 and T3>T1), and FM (T1=7.7±4.4 kg, T2=8.0±4.4, T3=10.0±6.2; T3>T1 and T2). TBW increased from T1 to T2 (Δ=1.9±1.3 L, p<0.01). RMR increased from baseline (1612±266 kcal/day; 92.0% of predicted) to T2 (1881±329, 105.3%; p<0.01) and T3 (1778±257, 99.6%; p<0.001). Cortisol was higher (p<0.05) at T2 (0.41±0.31 μg/dL) than T1 (0.34±0.31) and T3 (0.35±0.27). Male testosterone at T3 (186.6±41.3 pg/mL) was greater than T2 (148.0±44.6, p=0.04). RMR changes were associated (p≤0.05) with change in body fat percent (ΔBF%; r=0.59) and T3 protein intake (r=0.60); male testosterone changes were inversely associated (p≤0.05) with ΔBF%, ΔFM, and Δweight (r=-0.81–-0.88). TBW increased within days of competition. Pre-competition RMR suppression appeared to be variable and markedly reversed by overfeeding, and reverted toward normal levels following competition. RMR and male testosterone increased while FM was preferentially gained 4-6 weeks post-competition.
Autor / Fonte:Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch, Bill I Campbell, Abbie E Smith-Ryan International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 2017 April 19, : 1-25