Effect of maturational timing on bone health in male adolescent athletes engaged in different sports: The PRO-BONE study

Abstract

Objectives

To describe differences in bone outcomes according to biological age in male athletes participating in osteogenic (OS) or non-osteogenic (NOS) sports.

Design

Longitudinal (12-months).

Methods

104 adolescents (12–14 years) were measured at baseline and after 1y: OS group (n = 37 football or soccer players) and NOS group (n = 39 swimmers, n = 28 cyclists). Years from peak height velocity (PHV, −2 to +2) was used as a maturational landmark. Bone mineral content (BMC) was assessed using DXA. Hip structural analysis estimated cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and section modulus (Z) at the femoral neck (FN). Trabecular bone score (TBS) estimated lumbar spine (LS) texture. Quantitative ultrasound measured bone stiffness. Multilevel regression models adjusted by hours of training were fitted.

Results

Compared to NOS, OS had significantly greater total body (less head) BMC from PHV to +2 years from PHV (from 9.5% to 11.3%, respectively); LS BMC from −1 years from PHV to PHV (from 9.8% to 9.9%); hip BMC (from 11.6% to 22.9%), FN BMC (from 12.0% to 15.9%), TBS (from 4.2% to 4.8%) and stiffness index (from 11.9% to 23.3%) from −1 years from PHV to +2 years from PHV; and CSA (from 8.4% to 18.8%), Z (from 5.5% to 22.9%) and CSMI (from 10.6% to 23.3%) from −2 years from PHV to +2 years from PHV. There was a significant trend for the between-group differences to increase with biological age except for LS BMC and TBS.

Conclusions

These findings underline the differential bone response to different sports throughout the years surrounding PHV in male adolescent athletes.

Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN17982776.

Abbreviations

aBMD
areal bone mineral density
BMC
bone mineral content
BMI
body mass index
CSA
cross-sectional area
CSMI
cross-sectional moment of inertia
DXA
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
FN
femoral neck
OS
osteogenic sport
HSA
hip structural analysis
NOS
non-osteogenic sports
LS
lumbar spine
PHV
peak height velocity
TBLH
total body less head
QUS
quantitative ultrasound
TBS
trabecular bone score
Z
section modulus

Keywords

Bone ultrasound
DXA
Hip structural analysis
Maturity
Peak height velocity
Trabecular bone score

Autor / Fonte:Esther Ubago-Guisado, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Alan R Barker, Tore Christoffersen, Brad Metcalf, Luis Gracia-Marco Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2018 August 18
Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1440244018305413