Determination of designer doping agent – 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane – in dietary supplements and excretion study following single oral supplement dose

Highlights

A new designer stimulant, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) is investigated.

Excretion study following single oral administration of supplements containing EAPB.

Validation of the GC–MS methods for determination of EAPB in urine and supplement.

Detection and determination of EAPB in fourteen investigated dietary supplements.

The case of EAPB detection in the anti-doping control is presented.


Abstract

The quantitative analysis of a new designer doping agent, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane (EAPB) and its metabolite, 2-amino-1-phenylbutane (APB) in urine samples, and the determination of EAPB in dietary supplement samples, have been presented. The main purpose of the present study was to develop simple and reliable gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method (GC–MS) for excretion study following a single oral administration of dietary supplements containing EAPB. Three analytical methods for the determination of EAPB in urine and supplement samples, and APB in urine samples using the GC–MS system, have been validated. The method of the determination of EAPB in supplement samples was applied to analyze seventeen dietary supplements, CRAZE and DETONATE. Two other methods were used to determine the urinary excretion profile of EAPB and APB in the case of three healthy volunteers and, on further investigation, it was applied to the anti-doping control in sport. Quantification was obtained on the basis of the ions at m/z 86, 58 and 169, monitored for EAPB, APB and diphenylamine (used as an internal standard), respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 2.4 and 7.3 μg/g for EAPB in the case of supplement analysis, 2.9 and 8.8 ng/mL for EAPB in the case of urine analysis, and 3.2 and 9.7 ng/mL for APB. The other validation parameters as linearity, precision and trueness have been also investigated with the acceptable results. The extraction yield of all presented methods was above 69%. EAPB was detected in fourteen analyzed supplements (not included EAPB in their labels) and its content varied between 1.8 and 16.1 mg/g. Following oral administration of three supplements with EAPB to one male and two female volunteers, the parent compound of EAPB and its metabolite were monitored and the excretion parameters as the maximum concentration of the analyte in urine (2.2–4.2 μg/mL for EAPB; 1.1–5.1 μg/mL for APB) and the time for the maximum height of the excretion peak (2–8 h and 22 h in one case for EAPB; 20–22 h and 4 h in one case for APB) have been indicated. EAPB and APB were detected at the level above 50 ng/mL (50% of the minimum required performance level for stimulants in the anti-doping control in-competition in sport) in the urine up to 46–106 h and 58–120 h, respectively. Additionally, the result of the anti-doping control during swimming competition of one athlete, whose urine sample was analyzed for stimulants and narcotics, has been presented.

The qualitative and quantitative analyses of new designer agents in urine samples and the excretion studies of these substances are of a great importance in the anti-doping control in sport. Moreover, the presentation of detection examples of these agents in supplements that haven’t got included an information about them in the labeling, make athletes (and other supplement customers) more and more aware of the risk of the supplement use and possible health and doping consequences.


Graphical abstract

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Keywords

  • Designer stimulant;
  • Excretion study;
  • Dietary supplement;
  • GC–MS analysis;
  • Doping;
  • Sport

Autor / Fonte:Marzena Wójtowicz, Anna Jarek, Katarzyna Chajewska, Ewa Turek-Lepa, Dorota Kwiatkowska Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2015 July 26, 115: 523-533
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0731708515300790