Comparison of energy supplements during prolonged exercise for maintenance of cardiac function: carbohydrate only versus carbohydrate plus whey or casein hydrolysate


Cardiac function is often suppressed following prolonged strenuous exercise and this may occur partly because of an energy deficit. This study compared left ventricular (LV) function by 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) before and after ∼2.5 h of cycling (2-h steady-state 60% peak aerobic power output plus 16 km time trial) in 8 male cyclists when they ingested either placebo, carbohydrate-only (CHO-only), carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate (CHO-casein), or carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate (CHO-whey). No treatment-by-time interactions occurred, but pre-to-postexercise time effects occurred selectively. Although diastolic function measured by pulsed-wave Doppler early-to-late (E/A) transmitral blood flow velocity was suppressed in all trials from pre- to postexercise (mean change post-pre exercise: −0.53 (95% CI −0.15 to −0.91)), TDI early-to-late (e′/a′) tissue velocity was significantly suppressed pre- to postexercise only with placebo, CHO-only, and CHO-whey (septal and lateral wall e′/a′ average change: −0.62 (95% CI −1.12 to −0.12); −0.69 (95% CI −1.19 to −0.20); and −0.79 (95% CI −1.28 to −0.29), respectively) but not with CHO-casein (−0.40 (95% CI −0.90 to 0.09)). LV contractility was, or tended to be, significantly reduced pre- to postexercise with placebo, CHO-only, and CHO-whey (systolic blood pressure/end systolic volume change, mm Hg·mL−1: −0.8 (95% CI −1.2 to −0.4), p = 0.0003; −0.5 (95% CI −0.9 to −0.02), p = 0.035; and −0.4 (95% CI −0.8 to 0.04),p = 0.086, respectively), but not with CHO-casein (−0.3 (95% CI −0.8 to 0.1), p = 0.22). However, ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular-arterial coupling were significantly reduced pre- to postexercise only with placebo (placebo change: EF, −4.6 (95% CI −8.4 to −0.7)%; stroke volume/end systolic volume, −0.3 (95% CI −0.6 to −0.04)). Despite no treatment-by-time interactions, pre-to-postexercise time effects observed with specific beverages may be meaningful for athletes. Tentatively, the order of beverages with least-to-most variables displaying a time effect indicating suppression of LV function following exercise was CHO-casein < CHO-only and CHO-whey < placebo, and calls for further verification.

Keywords: carbohydrate supplementsprotein supplementsendurance exerciseleft ventricular functionechocardiographytissue Doppler imaging 

Autor / Fonte:Tanja Oosthuyse, Aletta M E Millen Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme 2016 February 26, : 1-10