Normative data for hop tests in high school and collegiate basketball and soccer players
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Objective, reliable, and valid functional tests may assist with the decision-making process for rehabilitation as well as assist in pre-participation screening for targeted interventions to prevent noncontact lower extremity injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine normative values in high school and college basketball and soccer players for four hop tests: the single hop for distance, the triple hop for distance, the crossover hop for distance, and the 6-m timed hop.
METHODS: A sample of convenience of 372 (185 females, 187 males) healthy high school and collegiate student-athletes were included in the study (mean age 17.37 years, range 14-24): 200 were soccer players and 172 were basketball players. Limb dominance was determined based on which extremity participants would choose to kick a ball for distance. A coin flip was used to determine which limb was tested first. Hop test order was randomized using a Latin square design. Participants performed one practice hop and three measured hops for each hop test on each limb. The average hop score for each limb was used for calculations.
RESULTS: Significant differences in test performance were found between sexes and levels of competition, p < 0.0005, with males performing better than females and collegiate athletes performing better than high school athletes for all hop tests. There were no clinically relevant differences between dominant sports. There were also no clinically relevant differences between dominant and non-dominant limbs. Normative values for each hop test were proposed, based on sex and level of competition.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that separate hop test standards should be used based on participant sex and level of competition. While some statistically significant differences were found between limbs, these differences did not appear to be functionally relevant. Further studies are needed to determine if sport-specific normative hop test values should be utilized and to examine normal limb symmetry indices in specific populations.
LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: 2A.
Autor / Fonte:Betsy A Myers, Walter L Jenkins, Clyde Killian, Peter Rundquist International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 2014, 9 (5): 596-603