Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing

Abstract

Prolonged unaccustomed exercise involving muscle lengthening (eccentric) actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired excitation–contraction coupling, inflammation and muscle protein degradation. This process is associated with delayed onset muscle soreness and is referred to as exercise-induced muscle damage. Although a certain amount of muscle damage may be necessary for adaptation to occur, excessive damage or inadequate recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage can increase injury risk, particularly in older individuals, who experience more damage and require longer to recover from muscle damaging exercise than younger adults. Furthermore, it is apparent that inter-individual variation exists in the response to exercise-induced muscle damage, and there is evidence that genetic variability may play a key role. Although this area of research is in its infancy, certain gene variations, or polymorphisms have been associated with exercise-induced muscle damage (i.e. individuals with certain genotypes experience greater muscle damage, and require longer recovery, following strenuous exercise). These polymorphisms include ACTN3 (R577X, rs1815739), TNF (−308 G>A, rs1800629), IL6(−174 G>C, rs1800795), and IGF2 (ApaI, 17200 G>A, rs680). Knowing how someone is likely to respond to a particular type of exercise could help coaches/practitioners individualise the exercise training of their athletes/patients, thus maximising recovery and adaptation, while reducing overload-associated injury risk. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the literature concerning gene polymorphisms associated with exercise-induced muscle damage, both in young and older individuals, and to highlight the potential mechanisms underpinning these associations, thus providing a better understanding of exercise-induced muscle damage.

Keywords

Exercise-induced muscle damage Delayed onset muscle soreness Single nucleotide polymorphism Creatine kinase Elderly 

Abbreviations

ACE

Angiotensin-I converting enzyme

ACTN3 

Gene that encodes the α-actinin-3 protein

CCL2

Chemokine (C–C motif) ligand-2

CCR2

Chemokine (C–C motif) receptor type-2

CK

Creatine kinase

COL 

Gene that encodes the collagen protein

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

IL

Interleukin

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

MyoD

Myogenic differentiation factor

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

Pax7

Paired box protein-7

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SLC30A8 

Gene that encodes the solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter) member eight protein

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

TNF

Tumour necrosis factor


Autor / Fonte:Philipp Baumert, Mark J Lake, Claire E Stewart, Barry Drust, Robert M Erskine European Journal of Applied Physiology 2016 June 13
Link: http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00421-016-3411-1.pdf