Evidence-Based Considerations and Recommendations for Athletic Trainers Caring for Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Context: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be noncompliant, impulsive, and disruptive in an athletic training or physical rehabilitation facility. Athletic trainers (ATs) are valuable and essential health care providers for active patients with ADHD. However, for a patient with ADHD to have a successful outcome in a busy athletic training environment, the AT or health care provider must tailor the treatment setting to the patient's needs.
Objective: To educate and raise awareness among ATs about patients with ADHD and to provide ATs with strategies and tools that will allow them to treat patients with ADHD more effectively.
Data Sources: We retrieved and reviewed articles from PubMed, PsychINFO, and Ovid without date restrictions. Search words were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder plus 1 of the following topics or search words: athletic training, athletics,coaching, sport, and sport psychology.
Study Selection: Any ADHD articles that were not applicable or translatable in good faith to athletic training, physical rehabilitation, or sport and exercise were excluded.
Data Extraction: Nonpharmacologic interventions were reviewed and amassed into categories from which the recommendations were created. No statistical analyses were conducted for this review.
Data Synthesis: We identified 1241 articles, and 86 met the inclusion criteria. Five groups of evidence were observed: (1) goal setting and coaching, (2) reinforcements and outcomes, (3) routines and treatment timing, (4) simplified feedback and instructions, and (5) environmental control. Reliable evidence suggests that these techniques can be translated and applied within an athletic training and physical rehabilitation setting.
Conclusions: Athletic trainers are a vital component in providing health care for patients with ADHD. Using goal contagion creates a structured environment and positive reinforcements that accommodate patients with ADHD. Furthermore, ATs may use the evidence-based recommendations in this review to create a treatment and physical rehabilitation program and space that are tailored to the needs of the ADHD patient to increase the chance of a successful outcome.
Autor / Fonte:Elizabeth S Wolfe, Kelly J Madden Journal of Athletic Training 2016 November 11