Eligibility and Disqualification Recommendations for Competitive Athletes With Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Task Force 1: Classification of Sports: Dynamic, Static, and Impact : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association and American Coll
- ACC/AHA Scientific Statements;
- blood pressure;
- cardiac output;
- cardiovascular abnormalities;
- oxygen saturation;
The “classification of sports” section has been a part of each iteration of the recommendations for participation in sports and provides a framework by which athletes with heart disease can be prescribed or proscribed specific sports for participation 1,2 and 3. For the 36th Bethesda Conference, an earlier version of the Figure was constructed that characterized sports by their strength component, expressed as the relative intensity of static muscle contractions (percentage of a maximal voluntary contraction), and their endurance component, reflected by the relative intensity of dynamic exercise (regular contraction of large muscle groups) or percentage of maximal aerobic power (o2max) . The rationale for a classification scheme applicable to the competitive athlete with cardiac disease is based on the well-described hemodynamics of each different type of exercise (static versus dynamic) 3 and 4, as well as the apparent cardiac adaptation of athletes who compete in these sports , which reflects the chronic load on the cardiovascular system. The underlying principle is that specific cardiovascular conditions may be more or less susceptible to complications (primarily ischemia, heart failure, or vascular compromise) based on unique characteristics of each lesion and the load placed on the heart during athletic competition.
Autor / Fonte:Benjamin D Levine, Aaron L Baggish, Richard J Kovacs, Mark S Link, Martin S Maron, Jere H Mitchell Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2015 October 27