Coronary artery anomalies overview: The normal and the abnormal

Abstract

The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and concise overview of coronary embryology and normal coronary anatomy, describe common variants of normal and summarize typical patterns of anomalous coronary artery anatomy. Extensive iconography supports the text, with particular attention to images obtained in vivo using non-invasive imaging. We have divided this article into three groups, according to their frequency in the general population: Normal, normal variant and anomaly. Although congenital coronary artery anomalies are relatively uncommon, they are the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes and therefore warrant detailed review. Based on the functional relevance of each abnormality, coronary artery anomalies can be classified as anomalies with obligatory ischemia, without ischemia or with exceptional ischemia. The clinical symptoms may include chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, syncope, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Moreover, it is important to also identify variants and anomalies without clinical relevance in their own right as complications during surgery or angioplasty can occur.

Key Words: Coronary arteriesAnomaliesVariantsAnatomyHeart

Core tip: Congenital coronary artery anomalies are not common, but it is crucial to identify them as in some cases they can cause severe reduction of blood flow to the myocardium (ischaemia) and lead to chest pain, arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, and that in themselves can increase the risk of routine procedures. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and concise overview of coronary embryology and normal coronary anatomy, describe common variants of normal and summarize typical patterns of anomalous coronary artery anatomy with the aid of non-invasive medical images.


Citation: Villa AD, Sammut E, Nair A, Rajani R, Bonamini R, Chiribiri A. Coronary artery anomalies overview: The normal and the abnormal. World J Radiol 2016; 8(6): 537-555 

Autor / Fonte:Adriana Dm Villa, Eva Sammut, Arjun Nair, Ronak Rajani, Rodolfo Bonamini, Amedeo Chiribiri World Journal of Radiology 2016 June 28, 8 (6): 537-55
Link: http://www.wjgnet.com/1949-8470/full/v8/i6/537.htm